How Many Weeks in a Year

One day almost everyone wonders how many weeks there are in a year. The answer seems to be obvious because it is elementary mathematics. You can count them by dividing 365 days per year by seven days per week. This way we’ll get 52 weeks plus one day. If it is one of the leap years1 with 366 days, it has 52 weeks plus two extra days. In other words, one can say that a regular year contains 52 1/7 weeks and a leap year consists of 52 2/7 weeks.

Or Are There 53 Weeks in a Year?

The days on the calendar will be arranged in 53 weeks, at least one of which will have less than 7 days. In the rarest of cases, the calendar can overlap 54 weeks in one year : January 1 and December 31 in their own separate weeks.

Conclusion

From the point of view of mathematics, there are 52 1/7 (or 2/7) weeks in a year. It means 52 full weeks. But on the calendar there will be 53 or 54 separate weeks though one or two of them will be incomplete. So the answer to the question about the number of weeks in a year depends on what you prefer to call a week.

 

If you mean seven days from Sunday till Saturday, then no year will have more than 52 weeks. But if a week for you is a separate line or column in the calendar, then there may be up to 54 weeks in a year.
Perhaps even more fundamentally there appear to be about 52.18 weeks (365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes 45.19 seconds) in a mean solar or tropical year. However, note that this value is changing based on the changes to the Earth’s path around the sun.
The Gregorian year, which is the internationally accepted civil year based on the Julian year, averages only 52.1775 solar weeks.
52, all the time on our current calendar.Actually it is 52.142857 in a non leap year and 52.285714 in a leap year. Divide days by 7.

 

 

How Many Ounces in a Pound

You may use this weight conversion table if you are converting pounds (lbs, lb) to ounces (oz) for the values listed in the table below.

Pound and ounce are imperial weight units. There are 16 ounces in a pound.

1 Pound = 16 Ounces

Ounces and pounds are widely-used as units of weight measurement in the USA, Canada, Great Britain and some other countries. The ounce is especially popular in old cooking books. There are imperial and US ounces and the latter is 4% larger. You should not confuse dry ounces with fluid ones which are used to measure volume.

Pounds To Ounces Chart

Pound Ounce Grains
1 Pound = 16 Ounce 437.5 Grains
2 Pound = 32 Ounce 875 Grains
3 Pound = 48 Ounce 1312.5 Grains
4 Pound = 64 Ounce 1750 Grains
5 Pound = 80 Ounce 2187.5 Grains
6 Pound = 96 Ounce 2625 Grains
7 Pound = 112 Ounce 3062.5 Grains
8 Pound = 128 Ounce 3500 Grains
9 Pound = 144 Ounce 3937.5 Grains
10 Pound = 160 Ounce 4375 Grains
11 Pound = 176 Ounce 4812.5 Grains
12 Pound = 192 Ounce 5250 Grains
13 Pound = 208 Ounce 5687.5 Grains
14 Pound = 224 Ounce 6125 Grains
15 Pound = 240 Ounce 6562.5 Grains
16 Pound = 256 Ounce 7000 Grains
17 Pound = 272 Ounce 7437.5 Grains
18 Pound = 288 Ounce 7875 Grains
19 Pound = 304 Ounce 8312.5 Grains
20 Pound = 320 Ounce 8750 Grains

How Many Known Chemical Elements Are There

As of 2012, there are 118 known elements

Elements consist of particles called atoms that consist of protons, electrons and optionally neutrons. Protons and neutrons are in the core of the atom, while electrons reside on different energy levels in a cloud around the core.

The atomic number of the element is determined by the number of protons in the core. The lightest, simplest element in the universe is hydrogen-1, which consists of one proton and one electron. There are also isotopes (different types) of hydrogen that have one or two neutrons in the core.
Since the number of protons defines the element, we can create a different element by adding more protons to the core. To make the new element an atom, we need to add a corresponding number of electrons, since protons are positively and electrons are negatively charged and an atom is always neutrally charged.

The more protons and neutrons you add to a core, the bigger it gets. When the core gets bigger, it also gets more unstable. This puts limits to what kind of elements occur in nature and also causes some elements to be radioactive.

The speed of light limits the number of different elements that occur as neutral atoms (where there are as many electrons as there are protons) to about 176.

The number of different elements that are proven to exist is 118, with the largest atom being number 118 (temporary name ununoctium), since element number 119 is yet to be found.

 

Sources: a

How Many Planets Are There in the Solar System

Until just a few years ago, there were 9 planets in the Solar System. However, the International Astronomical Union decided that Pluto is no longer a planet, so there are now only 8 planets in the Solar System.

 

As Pluto do not meet the new definitions and criteria of Planets it is no longer a planet now.

There are eight major planets. in our solar system.

Since the recent re-definition of ‘planet’, Pluto is a dwarf planet (along with others in that classification).

 

There are 8 planets in the solar system:
1.Mercury
2.Venus
3.Earth
4.Mars
5.Jupiter
6.Saturn
7.Uranus
8.Neptune

The 5 dwarf planets:
1.Ceres (an asteroid)
2.Pluto
3.Haumea (Kuiper Belt Object)
4.Makemake (Kuiper Belt Object)
5.Eris (Kuiper Belt Object)

How Many Search Engines Are There

List of Search Engines – Top Search Engines in 2012

There’s so many old list of search enginestype pages and blog posts out there with the top something search engines that were popular back in 1995 or 2001.

Many of the search engines that were once populare are now either extinct or have become mere echoes of Yahoo, Google or some other search engine with a feed. So where do you find the search engines of today?

Here’s my take: A list of the top search engines of 2012 including the big ones, some new promising start-ups and a couple of old ones that are still going strong.

The Search Engines, In Alphabetical Order

Altavista was the first well known search engine for the world wide web and that’s about the only thing it’s known for. Today it’s mantioned mainly for it’s role in history. The search results are from Yahoo so don’t expect anything original here, still it can bring a nice dose of nostalgy to those of Us that remember the time when Yahoo was just a free directory and Google didn’t exist. Altavista

Ask, formerly known as Ask Jeeves, is one of the small but big search engines with a 3.9% market shart as of November 2009. Ask was one of the first search engines to mix it’s search results with other sources like encyclopedias, images and maps. A simple query test indicates that Ask has billions of pages, or 1/8th of those in Google, at least for Enlish language results. Ask.com

Bing is Microsofts latest facelift on the search engine that was first named MSN Search, then Live Search and now Bing. Bing is considered by most to take the third spot after Google and Yahoo in terms of search quality. It’s also third in search as far as market share is conserned. Bing

Blekko is a brand new “Google killer”. It’s run by Rich Skrenta, previously on Topix and Netscape’s Open Directory and is not live yet but they have promised to open soon, let’s see… Blekko

Clusty calls itself a clustering search engine. This basically means that in addition to the traditional list of search results it gives you a list of alternative topics that you search phrase could be related to. I don’t like the quality of search results though, there’s a fair bit of low relevancy results returned, not spam though. Clusty

Cuil is a new search engine that markets itself as the worlds biggest search engine with three times the pages indexed as Google. It made a big bang when it launched in 2008 by craching on launch day and gives fairly good results and presents them in a new, somewhat strange, way. Cuil

Dogpile is a meta search engine that combines the search results of Google, Yahoo, Bing and Ask to let you search from all the big search engines in one place. Despite a minimal market share dogpile has still managed to get several J.D. Power & Associates awards for best customer satisfaction, this according to Businessweek. Dogpile

Do Great Good is a charity search engine, a fenomenon that’s sprung up lately where you search and they pay a part of the advertising revenue to charities. Be aware though that they mix sponsoded results with organic to make you click more ads. DoGreatGood

DuckDuckGo, founded by Gabriel Weinberg, is a search engine with it’s own bot and index but it also uses data from other sources, like Yahoo BOSS. Despite it’s funny name DuckDuckGo provides compelling search results that is a combination of facts, disambiguations and links. DuckDuckGo

Entireweb is a search engine founded in 2000 by the Swedish company WorldLight.com AB. Currently they index several hundred million webpages and serves over 100 million searches per month. Entireweb

Excite was founded in 1994 by Graham Spencer, Joe Kraus, Mark Van Haren, Ryan McIntyre, Ben Lutch and Martin Reinfried, all students at Stanford. Over the years it has been through the dot-com bubble, mergers, aquisitions and bankruptcy. Today it’s a meta search engine and portal with search results from Google, Yahoo!, MSN and Ask through an arrangement with InfoSpace. Excite

Faroo is a distributed search engine that stores data on users computers instead of in a central repocitory. All three search functions: Crawl, index and search are distributed to the end user allowing a large scale search engine with little hardware cost. Faroo

Gigablast was founded in 2000 by Matt Wells to index up to 200 billion pages. They don’t say if they have indexed that much but judging from the number of search results I’d say it’s closer to 20 billion. Anyway Gigablast has a large, frequently updated index and gets to play with the big boys though it doesn’t have much of a market share in search. The search results in a quick test is not up to the same standard as Google and Yahoo. Gigablast

Google is the worlds most popular search engine. Cuil said they have a bigger index but it’s going to take years before anyone can knock big G down from the position as market leader. Google

Hakia is a semantic search engine that organizes the results into categories looking at the search term from different angles. It uses a database of sites recommended by librarians to provide credible results, it then ads web results where the credible sources does not have enough info. It blends all this with news, photos and social media feeds to make it a different search experience. Hakia

ImHalal is a search engine mainly for muslims and includes web, image and Quran search. It returns highly relevant results quickly and looks nice so I included it here with the others. ImHalal

Leapfish combines the results from Google, Wikipedia, Digg, wikiHow, Answers, Amazon and Twitter to make an information page about your search term combining the media from many services. It looks neat enough to include on the search engine list even if they don’t have thir own index. Leapfish

Lycos which began as a research project by Dr. Michael Loren Mauldin of Carnegie Mellon University in 1994 grew to become the most visited online destination in the world in 1999. After several years of decline the search market share of Lycos was at 0.01% in the end of 2008 but if you visit them you’ll see that they still deliver relevant results with thumbnails attached. Lycos

Monster Crawler is a meta search engine founded in 1999 by several Southern Illinois University graduates. It combines results from Google, Yahoo, Bing and Ask on a clean robot spider themed results page including “Did you mean..” suggestions and related searches. Monster Crawler

Omgili is a forum search engine that only returns forum threads in the results. I tried a couple of searches and yes it’s really useful, I get to see what people are talking about which sometimes is just what I want. Omgili

Scrub The Web is one of the oldest search engines on the internet with operations since 1996 and it’s also one of the few original search engines that stil maintains it’s own index. Scrub The Web also provides a paid SEO memebership with SEO and submission tools for webmasters that want’s to learn more about SEO. Scrub The Web

Search Hippo, one of the older search engines, is a hobby project by Kevin Marcus, cofounder of InfoSpace.com and delivers “The important internet, ultra fast!” according the homepage. Search Hippo

Secret Search Engine Labs was started in 2007 as a hobby project by Simon Byholm (that’s me by the way) and is aiming at providing highly relevant search results with a really small index size. The search software is made to run from any old shared host with PHP and mySQL while the architecture is at the same time made to scale into server farms. Secret Search Engine Labs

Spezify is a totally cool new search engine that instead of the normal search result listing provides a flash based view that looks like you had pinned newspaper clips and photos to a board. You can see and read a whole paragraph of text from the website which makes it a lot more easy, at least for me, to decide which page I want to visit to learn more. Definately the first search engine with a non-traditional interface that has made an impression on me! Spezify

Stinky Teddy is a real-time gossip search engine developed by “Physicist turned search engine innovator” David Hardtke. It uses a combination of news, videos, tweets and web results from Bing, Yahoo, VideoSurf, Twitter, Oneriot and Collecta to create a buzz-o-meter score and a results page that is based on what people are talking about online. Stinky Teddy

Stumpedia is an exiting new people powered search engine. Unlike most of the social sites popping up Stumpedia is focusing on search instead of top stories. Members can submit new search results selecting which keyprases they should appear for. They can also vote for search results and make friends, and results will be tailored to what you and your social network likes. Stumpedia

WayBackMachine of the Internet Archive lets you search old versions of webpages, sometimes all the way back to 1996. It can be fun to see what your own webpage looked like three years ago as it’s easy to forget all the facelifts that is has had over time. WayBackMachine

WolframAlpha is not a traditional web search engine but instead helps you find answers from structured data, that is databases, statistics and scientific knowledge. It’s new and has received a lot of hype in the press, let’s see how successful they will be… WolframAlpha

Yahoo! Search is the eternal runner up always trailing big G with almost as good search results and a significantly smaller share of the search market. Yahoo has a lot of portal features in addition to search which sets it apart from Google in many ways. Yahoo Search

Yandex is a Russian IT company which operates the largest search engine in Russia (with 64% market share , ranked eighth-largest in the world  and develops a number of Internet-based services and products. The company’s mission is to give answers to users’ questions (explicit or implicit.Active Since 1997. Yandex

Blog Search Engines

Blog search engines finds blog posts and usually favor recent posts as blogs are often about news and you want to get the latest news. Blog search engines are also often real-time as the pinging system and RSS feed of a blog makes it a lot easier for the search engine to fetch content as it is created.

Bloglines is a blog search engine and news aggregator that was founded in 2003 by Mark Fletcher, former CEO of ONElist. In addition to searching through millions of blog posts you can also combine news (RSS) feeds to have all your online information collected in one place. Bloglines

Google Blog Search is the blog search engine by Google. It finds a lot of relevant answers to a query and feels comfortable to use. Google Blog Search

Social Search Engines and Other Weird Stuff

goby is a travel planning search engine where you can find things to do and where to sleep in different places in the United States. Seems to work well, it found a hot air ballow company near NYC for me. goby

Hunch is a decision enging that asks you fun questions to learn what type of person you are. With some questions answered it will use it’s knowledge of your interests and social associations to give you answers tailored to your personality. I think it’s quite fun, but I’m not sure if it’s useful.. Hunch

Mahalo is a questions and answers type portal much like Yahoo Answers, you can type in any question and other users can answer them. You can earn Mahalo dollars if you provide the best answer to a question. Mahalo

Powerset is a natural language search engine that tries to understand the question asked instead of just looking for keywords. Powerset was founded by Barney Pell, a graduate of Stanford with a Ph.D in computer science from Cambridge, aquired by Microsoft in 2008 and it currently searches and organizes articles from the Wikipedia. Powerset

Aardvark is a social engine where users can ask their friends and contacts for advice. The software automatically directs the question to the persons best eqipped to answer based on the personal profile they have entered into the system. Sounds like a good idea and they have an offer from Google to buy them for $30 million. Aardvark

Sources: a

How Many Websites Are There in 2012

In the 2012 survey we received responses from 612,843,429 websites. Compared to January, this represents an increase of 30M hostnames or +5.2%.

nginx was the only server to experience a non-negligible market share increase this month, gaining 0.27 percentage points. Apache did experience a growth of 19M hostnames, but its market share has remained static, while Microsoft and Google had a small drop in market share despite gaining 3.9M and 450K hostnames respectively.

Within the Million Busiest Sites nginx continued its steady growth; gaining just over 12K new sites. Apache saw the biggest loss this month with a drop of 18K hostnames.

The Resin application server has been experiencing strong growth over the past 12 months; seeing an almost tenfold growth from 480k hostnames in February 2011 to 4.7M or 0.77% of the market in February 2012. Resin is a Java application server from Caucho which is used on a number of the Million Busiest Sites, including Bebo — now recovered from its outage last week.

Total Sites Across All Domains
August 1995 – February 2012

 

 

Market Share for Top Servers Across All Domains
August 1995 – February 2012

 

 

Developer January 2012 Percent February 2012 Percent Change
Apache 378,267,399 64.91% 397,867,089 64.92% 0.01
Microsoft 84,288,985 14.46% 88,210,995 14.39% -0.07
nginx 56,087,776 9.63% 60,627,200 9.89% 0.27
Google 18,936,381 3.25% 19,394,196 3.16% -0.09

 

Totals for Active Sites Across All Domains
June 2000 – February 2012

 

Developer January 2012 Percent February 2012 Percent Change
Apache 105,684,049 57.93% 106,664,061 57.45% -0.48
nginx 22,221,514 12.18% 23,590,737 12.71% 0.53
Microsoft 22,142,114 12.14% 22,363,730 12.05% -0.09
Google 14,412,926 7.90% 14,316,485 7.71% -0.19
Market Share for Top Servers Across the Million Busiest Sites
September 2008 – February 2012

 

Developer January 2012 Percent February 2012 Percent Change
Apache 640,547 64.36% 622,816 62.57% -1.80
Microsoft 149,209 14.99% 147,689 14.84% -0.16
nginx 84,541 8.49% 96,596 9.70% 1.21
Google 23,894 2.40% 30,229 3.04% 0.64

 

How Many Organs Are in the Human Body

1. The human body is made up of a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. The average height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet tall. The human body is made to stand erect, walk on two feet, use the arms to carry and lift, and has opposable thumbs (able to grasp).

2. The adult body is made up of: 100 trillion cells, 206 bones,
600 muscles, and 22 internal organs.

 

3. There are many systems in the human body:
Circulatory System (heart, blood, vessels)
Respiratory System (nose, trachea, lungs)
Immune System (many types of protein, cells, organs, tissues)
Skeletal System (bones)
Excretory System (lungs, large intestine, kidneys)
Urinary System (bladder, kidneys)
Muscular System (muscles)
Endocrine System (glands)
Digestive System (mouth, esophogus, stomach, intestines)
Nervous System (brain, spinal cord, nerves)
Reproductive System (male and female reproductive organs)

4. Every square inch of the human body has about 19 million skin cells.

5. Every hour about 1 billion cells in the human body must be replaced.

6. The average human head has about 100,000 hairs.

7. The circulatory system of arteries, veins, and capillaries is about 60,000 miles long.

8. The heart beats more than 2.5 billion times in an average lifetime.

9. There are about 9,000 taste buds on the surface of the tongue, in the throat, and on the roof of the mouth.

10. The strongest muscle in the body is the tongue.

11. The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.

12. You blink over 10,000,000 times a year.

13. The human brain weighs about 3 pounds.

14. It takes about 20 seconds for a red blood cell to circle the whole body.

15. Only 10% of the population are left handed.

16. One fourth of the bones in your body are in your feet.

17. Children tend to grow faster in the spring.

18. The most sensitive finger on the human hand is the index finger.

19. More men are color-blind than women.

20. More people have brown eyes than any other color.

The skeletal system plays an important role in our bodies. It supports and protects internals such as lungs, heart, brain, kidneys, etc, but it performs some other functions too. For example, it also fixes the muscles; stores the bone marrow2, which is the source of blood formation; provides calcium for the whole body, etc.
Bones make up the “structural frame” for the human skeleton. If we had no bones, we would not be able to move, our internals would have poor protection, and they would lack blood and calcium. As you can guess, we have many bones, but do you know their exact number.

There can be two different answers to the question about how many bones are in the body, depending on whether we mean babies or adult humans.

  • A newborn baby’s skeleton consists of approximately 300 – 350 bones
  • An adult human body consists of 206 bones

Now, if somebody asks you, “How many bones are in a human body?” you can give the correct answer:
The number of bones changes because in the process of growing some of them fuse together during first years of life. The most illustrative example of this phenomenon is the human skull. In fact, formation of bones never ends. They are constantly renewed throughout life. Several types of cells take part in this remodeling:

  • Osteocytes maintain bones
  • Osteoclasts destroy bones
  • Osteoblasts form new bones

Scientists divide all the bones into four groups: short bones, long bones, irregular bones, and flat bones. They are also distributed in two different systems: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The stapes3 is the shortest bone (about one tenth of an inch), and the femur4 is the longest one.
The table below will give you useful information about the names of different bones and their numbers.

Names of bones Number of Bones
The Axial Skeleton
Cranial Bones 8
Facial Bones 14
Ossicles 6
Hyoid bone 1
Vertebral column (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx) 26
Bones of the thorax (sternum and ribs) 25
The Appendicular Skeleton
Shoulder girdles (clavicles and scapulae) 4
Upper limbs: arms (humerus), forearms (clavicles and scapulae), and hands (carpus, digits, and metacarpus) 60
Hip girdle 2
Lower limbs: (femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsus, digits, and metatarsus) 60
Total: 206 bones

All the bones support and maintain our body making the adult human skeleton. You should also remember that some people have extra ribs or lumbar vertebra, though not everyone has sutural bones.

Some Facts about Human Skeletons

Here are some interesting facts about human skeletons:

  • The femur, which is the longest bone in the body, equals about one fourth of the man’s height.
  • Necks of giraffes and humans consist of the same quantity of bones.
  • Hands and feet have most of the skeleton bones.
  1. The skeletal system means the system of different bones, cartilages and joints of the body. All these structures make up the skeleton.
  2. The bone marrow is a pliant tissue which can be found inside of bones. It is very important for human bodies because it produced blood cells and lymphocytes. It also prevents the backflow of the lymph. The bone marrow composes about four percent of the human body mass.
  3. The stapes (also called stirrup because of its shape) is the smallest bone in the human body. It is situated in the middle ear. The stapes transmits vibrations to the inner ear.
  4. The femur is the longest bone in the human body. It is articulated at the knee and the hip.

There are 78 organs in the human body. Below are just some of them.

An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common purpose. Some organs in the human body include:

• adrenal glands
• anus
• appendix
• bladder
• bones
• brain
• bronchi
• ears
• esophagus
• eyes
• gall bladder
• genitals
• heart
• hypothalamus
• kidneys
• larynx (voice box)
• liver
• lungs
• large intestine
• lymph nodes
• mouth
• nose
• pancreas
• parathyroid glands
• pituitary gland
• rectum
• salivary glands
• skin (the largest)
• skeletal muscles
• small intestine
• spinal cord
• spleen
• stomach
• thymus gland
• thyroid
• trachea
• ureters
• urethra

Tissues and Organs

Related cells joined together are collectively referred to as a tissue. The cells in a tissue are not identical, but they work together to accomplish specific functions. A sample of tissue removed for examination under a microscope (biopsy) contains many types of cells, even though a doctor may be interested in only one specific type.

Connective tissue is the tough, often fibrous tissue that binds the body’s structures together and provides support. It is present in almost every organ, forming a large part of skin, tendons, and muscles. The characteristics of connective tissue and the types of cells it contains vary, depending on where it is found in the body.

 

The body’s functions are conducted by organs. Each organ is a recognizable structure—for example, the heart, lungs, liver, eyes, and stomach—that performs specific functions. An organ is made of several types of tissue and therefore several types of cells. For example, the heart contains muscle tissue that contracts to pump blood, fibrous tissue that makes up the heart valves, and special cells that maintain the rate and rhythm of heartbeats. The eye contains muscle cells that open and close the pupil, clear cells that make up the lens and cornea, cells that produce the fluid within the eye, cells that sense light, and nerve cells that conduct impulses to the brain. Even an organ as apparently simple as the gallbladder contains different types of cells, such as those that form a lining resistant to the irritative effects of bile, muscle cells that contract to expel bile, and cells that form the fibrous outer wall holding the sac together