Bakugan Battle Brawlers is a Japanese action adventure anime television series produced by TMS Entertainment and Japan Vistec under the direction of Mitsuo Hashimoto. The story centers on the lives of creatures called Bakugan and the battle brawlers who possess them. Though initially a failure in Japan, the series became popular in the United States and Canada, prompting the creation/order of several follow-up seasons, (New Vestroia, and Gundalian Invaders) which aired in other countries before Japan. The fourth season, (Mechtanium Surge) was never broadcasted in Japan and instead aired in Canadian and U.S. markets. The Bakugan franchise are co-productions from Nelvana Enterprises, Spin Master, Sega Toys and TMS Entertainment, with animation by TMS Entertainment in association with Sega Toys. On January 15, 2012, CoroCoro Comics announced that a spin-off series is currently in production that will be based and feature the characters from the BakuTech Manga.

Season 1: Battle Brawlers

Dan Kuso’s life changed one day when random cards fell out of the sky. He and his friend Shun invented a game called Bakugan with these. Together with his friends Runo, Marucho, Julie, Shun, and Alice, they form the Bakugan Battle Brawlers and its members are accidentally dragged into fighting for the fate of Vestroia (the Bakugan’s home dimension) against the Doom Beings. The season is the story of a dimension called Vestroia which loses its natural balance and merges with the Earth and many other alien planets. An evil Bakugan called Naga was tempted and decided to take the Silent Core, a huge ball of negative energy that along with the positive Infinity Core, forms the Perfect Core that balances Vestroia. So Dan and his friends decided to bring back balance by meeting new friends and allies in the other planets, learn more about the origin of the Bakugan; and facing Naga, who seeks the Infinity Core so that he could complete the Perfect Core and have the ultimate power.

Season 2: New Vestroia

The Brawlers (Dan and Marucho) return to New Vestroia and discover that it has been colonized by an alien race called Vestals, who are unaware that the Bakugan are intelligent beings. Three Vestals: Mira, Ace and Baron, however, encounter Shun, who was an old friend of Dan and Marucho, so he knew the truth about Bakugan and formed the Bakugan Brawlers Resistance. While battling against the evil Vexos, the top Vestal brawlers, the Brawlers destroy each of the three Dimension Controllers that keep the Bakugan in their ball form, liberating New Vestroia. The Resistance part but reunite six months later when they discover that King Zenoheld of Vestal has attacked the Six Ancient Warriors in an attempt to steal the Attribute Energies. In desperation, the Ancient Warriors give the Resistance Bakugan their attribute energies to protect them from Zenoheld, who has the Bakugan Termination System, a machine built to wipe out all Bakugan but needs the Attribute Energies to power it. After losing half the energies, the Brawlers decided to attack instead, engaging a temporary alliance with Spectra Phantom, the former leader of the Vexos, along with his sidekick Gus Grav. However, the remaining energies are taken and the Brawlers rush to New Vestroia to evacuate all the Bakugan. while the Six Ancient Warriors battle with King Zenoheld, they failed and turn to the bakugan risistance by giving them their power and then all evolved. Drago, however, refuses to give up and manages to destroy the BT System and evolves again into Helix Dragonoid. Things quiet down until Spectra resurfaces again to battle Dan and when he loses, he concedes that Dan is number one and joins the Brawlers, returning to his original persona, Keith Clay. Keith reveals that Zenoheld is working on a powerful weapon called the Alternative System and helps construct Battle Gear for Drago. Meanwhile, the Vexos begins crumbling from within as both Volt,Lync and Shadow decide to leave, feeling that Zenoheld and his son Hydron have finally gone too far but are quickly disposed of by Prince Hydron. In the final battle, the Brawlers with Gus, who joins as their newest member, manage to destroy the Alternative and the Resistance go their separate ways.

Season 3: Gundalian Invaders

After defeating Zenoheld, the Brawlers return to Earth and with the help of newcomer Ren, they set up Bakugan Interspace. However, Ren is not all that he seems to be and reveals that he is a Gundalian in need of help, saying that his planet Gundalia, is under attack by Neathia. Shun is not convinced and discovers, that Ren is lying once Princess Fabia showed and proved Ren’s story wrong. The Brawlers agree to help Fabia and head to Neathia to help fight off the Gundalians. Meanwhile, Ren begins showing signs of distrust for Barodius (Gundalia’s Tyrannical Emperor) and eventually defects to rejoin the Brawlers. Unfortunately, Jake is captured by Kazarina (Gundalia’s leading Bakugan biologist) and brainwashed, so the Brawlers head to Gundalia to rescue him along with Ren’s imprisoned team mates(who were imprisoned for failure), joined by Nurzak (a former advisor to Barodious, who turned against him when he saw he would lead Gundalia to ruin) and Mason Brown(a team mate who had escaped imprisonment, who have also sided with Neathia. Once they do, the Twelve Orders mount a final attack on Neathia. The Brawlers rush back in time to defend the planet while Dan and Barodius engage in their final battle. Ren and Mason’s team mates Jesse Glenn, Lena Isis and Zenet Surrow are freed from their brainwashed state after Kazarina’s demise. Linehalt uses his Forbidden Powers to restore the war torn Neathia, while Barodius and Dharak are destroyed by an overload of power from the Sacred Orb (which they tried to take anyway, despite Dan and Drago defeating them), which grants Drago new powers and evolves him into Titanium Dragonoid and granting him the status of ruler over all Bakugan.

Season 4: Mechtanium Surge

The Brawlers’ reign as number one in Bakugan Interspace is killed by two new powerful teams: Team Anubias and Team Sellon. To make matters worse, Dan and Drago continuously suffer from visions sent to them by Mag Mel and Razenoid. These cause them to lose fans rapidly when Drago loses control in battle several times, threatening the lives of all the children in Interspace. Shun and Marucho find themselves unable to help as Dan is keeping everything to himself. When Dan loses control once again and nearly kills Anubias in battle, all of Dan’s fans abandon him and he leaves for New Vestroia to train. Shun, meanwhile, takes the reins of leader of the Battle Brawlers and charges himself with the task of returning the Brawlers to their former glory. He becomes more and more uncaring and brushes off all opinions but his own while Marucho tries to help him be a better leader. Paige and Rafe show up to learn from them, but find them in disarray. Meanwhile, Dan and Drago fix their problem and prepare to come back. Eventually, Dan controls Drago’s powers as Marucho and Shun reunite and join up with Paige and Rafe. When the Chaos Bakugan start destroying Interspace, Spectra appears out of nowhere to help the Brawlers out and destroys many of the Chaos Bakugan. Afterwards, Dan returns, but is out of sync and accidentally defeats his fellow brawlers with Zenthon. He tells them later about Mag Mel (Spectra left beforehand, disappointed in Dan having changed). Shun walks out and dismisses Taylean’s words. Dan later has a vision (which is true) about Gundalia being attacked by Mag Mel (who is now free). Dan arrives and tells them about Gundalia, which Paige confirms unexpectedly. The Brawlers dismiss Dan and don’t let him go, but Dan says somewhat angrily that he’s not asking; he’s telling them that he is an original brawler and isn’t gonna be cut from this fight. They let him come along and save Ren’s home world.

Then they face Mag Mel and discover Interspace being destroyed, so they go back to Earth to save it but they are trapped and must figure a way to save the gate, the key, the battlers and Interspace. Just then, Anubias and Sellon reveal themselves as artificial life forms created by Mag Mel to assure his resurrection and succeeded in taking Dan’s Key. In a new battle, Dan find out that Mag Mel is actually Barodius, who survived his last encounter on Neathia after being transported to the dark reversed dimension created by Code Eve. He later plans to destroy Earth, Gundalia, Neathia, Vestal and New Vestroia by sending every civilization to the dark reversed dimension. Before “disappearing”, he says that his final demise will cause another disaster to befall on Dan and Drago.

A few months later, Bakugan City is shown to have a peaceful start as humans have now communed with the Bakugan from New Vestroia. Not all is well when 4 Mechtogan lead by Coredegon, who have broken free from their bakugan, start terrorizing the place. Not only that, but some new enemy called Wiseman has appeared with ancient Bakugan called the Nonets. At the beginning, The Brawlers get confused because Wiseman somehow had the appearance of Gunz Lazar, the new Haos Brawler who disappeared after the four Mechtogan attacked Bakugan City. But is was later revealed that Wiseman was actually Coredegon in disguise while the real Gunz was put in a coma so his negative energy was absorbed. After Coredegon alongside his pals (in his combined form as a Mechtogan Destroyer) sent the Brawlers to the Doom Dimension, he completely destroyed the Earth and New Vestroia. With Gunz back to his normal state, Dan and the others travel trough time in order to stop Mechtavius Destroyer from killing every human and Bakugan. In the final battle, Dragonoid Destroyer, who is Drago’s last Mechtogan, acquires an infinite power that comes from the bond between Bakugan and humans all over the world, which gave them a chance to defeat the nomad Mechtogan and send them back between dimensions. Dan’s friends throw him a party, but soon discover Dan is missing. Shun sees Dan and Drago sailing off using a boat borrowed from Kato. Dan says that another adventure is waiting for him and Drago, and that he had enough time in the spotlight, such that he wants to let other Brawlers to rise to his rank.

Bakugan Games

Strategic game

A strategic game called Bakugan was developed by Sega Toys and Spin Master and released in conjunction with the anime series, albeit beginning a year before the anime even started (2006). The game uses spherical, spring-loaded miniature figures, representing the Bakugan, which pop open when rolled onto special metal Gate cards. The objective of the game is to capture three Gate cards. You can change the rules of battle with ability cards. Battle is engaged when opposing Bakugan magnetically pop open on the same Gate card. Each Bakugan has an attack strength called “G-Power”, which can be modified by the Gate card landed on, Ability cards from players’ hands,special optional pieces called Traps and some Bakugan carry Battle Gear and bakunano. To win a Gate card, you need to use the gate card’s G-power boost added to the G-Power score of your Bakugan. The Bakugan with the highest combined G-Power wins the battle and captures the Gate. Some bakugan are called Mechtogan. These are bakugan action figures, they do not fold up to a ball, but instead, you slap the card onto its back to show its secret functions and G-power. Your bakugan’s G-power combine with the Mechtogan’s G-power to make the total g-power, e.g.: bakugan g power; 600g, mechtogan g-power: 150g = 750g, so you will have 750g power

The game can also be played with up to four people. The rules remain the same as a regular game. Bakugan may also be played in Big game style where players use six Gate Cards, six Ability Cards and six Bakugan, instead of three of each as in a normal game. Instead of capturing three Gate Cards, a player must capture six to win the game.

The game has spawned numerous accessories, such as carry clips to store three Bakugan marbles at a time, launchers to fire the marbles at the game arena, soft plastic and hard plastic play area mats and special gauntlets (based on the ones used in the second season).


There are a total of 6 attributes: Pyrus (fire), Aquos (water) and Haos (light) make the power triangle. Opposite them, the trio of Darkus (darkness) , Ventus (wind) and Subterra (rock) make the triangle of power. Battle gear and Bakunano come in gold, silver, and copper.

Power Sources

There is the Infinity Core, Silent Core, The Sacred Orb, The Attribute Energies, The Code Of Eve and others. They are power sources. They contain enough power in them to bring life to anything in the Bakugan world. They contain light and darkness to keep the world balanced.

Special Treatment

Special Treatment Bakugan exist, such as Clear, Dual Attribute, Pearl, Translucent, and White. In the game, most Special Treatment Bakugan have multiple attributes or can take on the attribute of an opposing Bakugan under certain circumstances. Note that special effects are NOT attributes except for Clear and White.


Bakugan marbles have been one of the top rated toys for children, winning plenty of awards and selling thousands of marbles a year. The original series 1 and 2 (B1 Bakugan) were smaller, and all Bakugan after series 3 called Bakupearl (B2 Bakugan) are larger and the current size. Fans have also been upset, as the main heroes and villains Bakugan from the last 26 episodes in New Vestoria were not released outside the Japanese Bakugan market.
According to IGN, it was one of the leading kids games for the Nintendo DS in 2009. The Toy Industry Association gave Bakugan Battle Brawlers the 2009 Property of the Year award, recognizing the property that has had the greatest success spreading its brand throughout the industry that year.

Main Bakugan Characters


Mag Mel is the mysterious masked entity who haunts Dan’s darkest dreams and often appears to him as a vision, especially during battle.


Sellon is the beauitful and elegant leader of Team Sellon. Although she sometimes clashes with Anubias, they are united in their goal to take down Dan and Drago.


Anubias is the leader of a new powerhouse team storming Bakugan Interspace. He admires Dan’s battle style and is determined to claim the title as number one.


Spectra Phantom battles alongside Marucho and Shun while Dan is gone. Spectra’s battle style is cool and focused. He immediately anticipates his opponent’s moves and rarely loses a battle.


Paige is a former solider from Gundalia. She has been sent by the Queen of Neathia to train with the Battle Brawlers. She’s completely fearless in battle and quick to be the first to throw down.


Rafe is a young, patriotic solider with the Neathian Castle Knights. He has been sent to Early and Interspace to train with the Battle Brawlers.


Robin is the quiet one on Team Anubias. Much like Shun, he has strength and stamina in battle and rarely let’s his emotions override his actions.


Shun isn’t happy with the new style of battling in Interspace and tries to keep his battles true and clean. When Dan starts acting strange, he declares himself the new leader of the Brawlers.


Marucho has made Bakugan interspace into a worldwide phenomenon. A loyal friend, Marucho often finds himself caught in the middle between Dan and Shun. His battle style is one of using “brain over brawn.”


Dan is the number one ranked battler in Interspace, and the Brawlers have an avid fan base. But dark forces are at work and Dan and Drago are haunted by disturbing dreams and visions.


An LED-backlit LCD display is a flat panel display which uses LED backlighting instead of the cold cathode fluorescent (CCFL) backlighting used by most other LCDs. LED-backlit LCD TVs use the same TFT LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) technologys as CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Picture quality is primarily based on TFT LCD technology, independent of backlight type. While not an LED display, a television using this display is called an “LED TV” by some manufacturers and suppliers. In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority has made it clear in correspondence that it does not object to the use of the term “LED TV”, but requires it to be explained in advertising.

Three types of LED may be used:

White-edge LEDs around the rim of the screen, using a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen (the most common use)
LED array behind the screen, whose brightness is not controlled individually
Dynamic “local dimming” array of LEDs, controlled individually (or in clusters) to achieve a modulated backlight pattern
Full-array LEDs

Many brands use LED backlighting technology, which offer the advantages over CCFL LCDs of reduced energy consumption, better contrast and brightness, greater color range, more rapid response to changes in scene and more accurate image rendering.

Dynamic “local dimming” LEDs

This method of backlighting allows local dimming of specific areas of darkness on the screen. This can show truer blacks, whites and photorefractive effects at much higher dynamic-contrast ratios by dimming (or brightening) the backlight locally (at the cost of less detail in small, bright objects on a dark background, such as star fields or shadow details).

Comparison with CCFL backlit displays

Compared to CCFL-backlit LCDs, LED-backlit LCDs:

Produce images with greater dynamic contrast
Can be extremely slim (some screens are less than .5 inch (0.92 cm) thin in edge-lit panels
Offer a wider color gamut (when RGB-LED backlighting is used)
Produce less environmental pollution on disposal
Are more expensive
Have (typically) 20- to 30-percent lower power consumption
Are more reliable
Allow a wider dimming range

LED-backlit LCDs are not self-illuminating (unlike pure-LED systems). There are several methods of backlighting an LCD panel using LEDs, including the use of either white or RGB (Red, Green, and Blue) LED arrays behind the panel and edge-LED lighting (which uses white LEDs around the inside frame of the TV and a light-diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the LCD panel). Variations in LED backlighting offer different benefits. The first commercial full-array LED-backlit LCD TV was the Sony Qualia 005 (introduced in 2004), which used RGB LED arrays to produce a color gamut about twice that of a conventional CCFL LCD television. This was possible because red, green and blue LEDs have sharp spectral peaks which (combined with the LCD panel filters) result in significantly less bleed-through to adjacent color channels. Unwanted bleed-through channels do not “whiten” the desired color as much, resulting in a larger gamut. RGB LED technology continues to be used on Sony BRAVIA LCD models.

LED backlighting using “white” LEDs produces a broader spectrum source feeding the individual LCD panel filters (similar to CCFL sources), resulting in a more limited display gamut than RGB LEDs at lower cost. A dynamic “local dimming” LED backlight was first demonstrated by BrightSide Technologies in 2003, and later commercially introduced for professional markets (such as video post-production). Edge LED lighting was first introduced by Sony in September 2008 on the 40-inch (1,000 mm) BRAVIA KLV-40ZX1M (known as the ZX1 in Europe). Edge-LED lighting for LCDs allows thinner housing; the Sony BRAVIA KLV-40ZX1M is 1 cm thick, and others are also extremely thin.

LED-backlit LCDs have longer life and better energy efficiency than plasma and CCFL LCD TVs. Unlike CCFL backlights, LEDs use no mercury (an environmental pollutant) in their manufacture. However, other elements (such as gallium and arsenic) are used in the manufacture of the LED emitters; there is debate over whether they are a better long-term solution to the problem of screen disposal.

Because LEDs can be switched on and off faster than CCFLs and can offer a higher light output, it is theoretically possible to offer very high contrast ratios. They can produce deep blacks (LEDs off) and high brightness (LEDs on). However, measurements made from pure-black and pure-white outputs are complicated by the fact that edge-LED lighting does not allow these outputs to be reproduced simultaneously on screen.

In September 2009 Nanoco Group announced a joint development agreement with a major Japanese electronics company, under which it will design and develop quantum dots for LED backlights in LCDs. Quantum dots are useful in displays, because they emit light in specific, normal distributions. This can result in a display that more accurately renders colors in the visible spectrum. Other companies are also developing quantum dots for displays: Nanosys, 3M, QD Vision of Lexington, Massachusetts and LG Display of South Korea.

Backlight-dimming flicker

LED backlights are often dimmed by applying pulse-width modulation to the supply current, switching the backlight off and on faster than the eye can perceive. If the dimming-pulse frequency is too low or the user is sensitive to flicker, this may cause discomfort and eyestrain (similar to the flicker of CRT displays at lower refresh rates). This can be tested by a user simply by waving their hand in front of the screen; if it appears to have sharply-defined edges as it moves, the backlight is pulsing at a fairly low frequency. If the hand appears blurry, the display either has a continuously-illuminated backlight or is operating at a frequency too high to perceive. Flicker can be reduced (or eliminated) by setting the display to full brightness, although this degrades image quality and increases power consumption.

LED display

An LED display is a flat panel display, which uses light-emitting diodes as a video display. An LED panel is a small display, or a component of a larger display. They are typically used outdoors in store signs and billboards, and in recent years have also become commonly used in destination signs on public transport vehicles or even as part of transparent glass area. LED panels are sometimes used as form of lighting, for the purpose of general illumination, task lighting, or even stage lighting rather than display.


There are two types of LED panels: conventional (using discrete LEDs) and surface-mounted device (SMD) panels. Most outdoor screens and some indoor screens are built around discrete LEDs, also known as individually mounted LEDs. A cluster of red, green, and blue diodes is driven together to form a full-color pixel, usually square in shape. These pixels are spaced evenly apart and are measured from center to center for absolute pixel resolution. The largest LED display in the world is over 500 meters long and is located in Suzhou, China, covering the Yuanrong Times Square. The largest LED television in the world is the Center Hung Video Display at Cowboys Stadium, which is 160 × 72 ft (49 × 22 m), 11,520 square feet (1,070 m2).

Most indoor screens on the market are built using SMD technology — a trend that is now extending to the outdoor market. An SMD pixel consists of red, green, and blue diodes mounted in a single package, which is then mounted on the driver PC board. The individual diodes are smaller than a pinhead and are set very close together. The difference is that the maximum viewing distance is reduced by 25% from the discrete diode screen with the same resolution.

Indoor use generally requires a screen that is based on SMD technology and has a minimum brightness of 600 candelas per square meter (cd/m², sometimes informally called nits). This will usually be more than sufficient for corporate and retail applications, but under high ambient-brightness conditions, higher brightness may be required for visibility. Fashion and auto shows are two examples of high-brightness stage lighting that may require higher LED brightness. Conversely, when a screen may appear in a shot on a television studio set, the requirement will often be for lower brightness levels with lower color temperatures; common displays have a white point of 6500–9000 K, which is much bluer than the common lighting on a television production set.

For outdoor use, at least 2,000 cd/m² is required for most situations, whereas higher-brightness types of up to 5,000 cd/m² cope even better with direct sunlight on the screen. (The brightness of LED panels can be reduced from the designed maximum, if required.)

Suitable locations for large display panels are identified by factors such as line of sight, local authority planning requirements (if the installation is to become semi-permanent), vehicular access (trucks carrying the screen, truck-mounted screens, or cranes), cable runs for power and video (accounting for both distance and health and safety requirements), power, suitability of the ground for the location of the screen (if there are no pipes, shallow drains, caves, or tunnels that may not be able to support heavy loads), and overhead obstructions.

Flat panel LED television display

The first true all-LED flat panel television screen was possibly developed, demonstrated and documented by James P. Mitchell in 1977. The modular, scalable display was initially designed with hundreds of MV50 LEDs and a newly available transistor-transistor logic memory addressing circuit from National Semiconductor. The ¼ in thin flat panel prototype and the scientific paper were displayed at the 29th ISEF expo in Washington D.C. in May 1978. It received awards by NASA, and General Motors Corporation. A liquid crystal display (LCD) matrix design was also cited in the LED paper as an alternative x-y scan technology and as a future alternate television display method. The replacement of the 70 year+ high-voltage analog system (cathode-ray tube technology) with a digital x-y scan system has been a significant achievement. Displacement of the electromagnetic scan systems included the removal of inductive deflection, electron beam and color convergence circuits. The digital x-y scan system has helped the modern television to “collapse” into its current thin form factor.

The 1977 model was monochromatic by design. Efficient blue LEDs did not arrive for another decade. Large displays now use high-brightness diodes to generate a wide spectrum of colors. It took three decades and organic light-emitting diodes for Sony to introduce an LED TV: the Sony XEL-1 OLED screen which was marketed in 2009.

The largest 3D LED television display

The 2011 UEFA Champions League Final match between Manchester United and Barcelona was broadcast live in 3D format in Gothenburg (Sweden), on an EKTA screen. It had a refresh rate of 100 Hz, a diagonal of 7.11 m (23 ft 3.92 in) and a display area of 6.192×3.483 m, and was listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest LED 3D TV.

LED text displays

LED text displays refer to types that are specialized and limited to display of alpha-numeric characters. Most types display either one character or a group of characters. One character is generally displayed by a matrix of LEDs, or by a matrix of segments.

SpongeBob SquarePants

SpongeBob SquarePants (often referred to simply as SpongeBob) is an American animated television series, created by animator Stephen Hillenburg. Much of the series centers on the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The series’ popularity has prompted the release of a media franchise, contributing to its position as Nickelodeon’s highest rated show, the most distributed property of MTV Networks, and among Nicktoons’ most watched shows. It is listed 15th in IGN’s top 100 animated series list.

When Rocko’s Modern Life ended in 1996, Hillenburg began working on SpongeBob SquarePants. He teamed up with several Nickelodeon veterans and Rocko crew members, including creative director Derek Drymon (Action League Now!, Hey Arnold!, and Rocko’s Modern Life) writers and directors Sherm Cohen, and Dan Povenmire, writer Tim Hill, actor and writer Martin Olson, animation director Alan Smart (all from Rocko’s Modern Life), and story editor Merriwether Williams (The Angry Beavers), who worked on the series for its first few seasons and switched to SpongeBob SquarePants in July 1999. To voice the character of SpongeBob, Hillenburg approached Tom Kenny, who had worked with him on Rocko’s Modern Life. Originally, SpongeBob was to be named SpongeBoy, but this name was already in use. This was discovered after voice-acting for the original seven-minute pilot was recorded in 1997. The Nickelodeon legal department discovered that the name was already in use for a mop product. Upon finding this out, Hillenburg decided that the character’s given name still had to contain “Sponge” so viewers would not mistake the character for a “Cheese Man”. Hillenburg decided to use the name “SpongeBob”. He chose “SquarePants” as a family name as it referred to the character’s square shape and it had a “nice ring to it”.

The pilot episode of SpongeBob SquarePants first aired in the United States on Nickelodeon on May 1, 1999, following the Nickelodeon Kids’ Choice Awards. The first episodes were called “Help Wanted”, “Reef Blower”, and “Tea at the Treedome”. The “official” series premiere followed on July 17, 1999, with the second episode, “Bubblestand/Ripped Pants.” The show reached enormous popularity by 2000 during the second season, and has remained popular since. A feature film of the series was released in theaters on November 19, 2004. The series celebrated its tenth anniversary on July 17, 2009. So far the series has aired 334 individual episodes. It is currently Nickelodeon’s longest-running cartoon, and currently in its eighth season. SpongeBob surpassed Rugrats (in terms of number of episodes) when SpongeBob aired its 173rd episode on April 11, 2012 (while Rugrats had 172 episodes). On April 12, 2012, SpongeBob aired its 174th episode and has produced 204 episodes, and more episodes will be produced, marking it as the first Nicktoon to have 200 or more episodes. On July 21, 2012, SpongeBob was renewed and aired its ninth season. This is the first SpongeBob season to have regular episodes produced in widescreen.

Main characters

SpongeBob SquarePants (Tom Kenny) is the series’ title character and protagonist. He is a yellow sea sponge who physically resembles an artificial, rectangular, kitchen-type cleaning sponge; he wears brown short-pants, a white shirt and a red tie. He lives in a pineapple house and is employed as a fry cook at a fast-food restaurant called the The Krusty Krab, where many stories take place; he takes pride in his work and seems to worship or venerate the Krabby Patty. SpongeBob’s hobbies include practicing karate with Sandy, as well as jellyfishing and blowing bubbles with Patrick. He attends Mrs. Puff’s Boating School but has never passed; his lack of a driver’s license is a running gag throughout the series. It is implied that, although he has no experience, he has talent in the arts. Green and purple were early color choices for the character before yellow was chosen. He is weak and fragile, shown in MuscleBob BuffPants when he can’t lift a glass of tea, and he claims to be “pumping iron” with his plush toys. His first appearance was in “Help Wanted”. Gary is SpongeBob’s only pet. He had a pet Nudibranch named Puffy Fluffy but Gary drove him away because he was too dangerous. He is presumbley in his 20′s.
Patrick Star (Bill Fagerbakke) is a pink starfish who lives under a rock and whose most prominent character trait is his low intelligence. He is friends with Spongebob and often encourages activities that get the two into trouble. While typically unemployed throughout the course of the series, Patrick holds various short-term jobs as the storyline of each episode requires. He is good-natured, kind, and is “the tough one” of the two who is often called to fight SpongeBob’s battles for him (although he usually gets distracted). SpongeBob is the only character that Patrick shows any real emotions for. Patrick is shown to have a mean temper in some episodes and can only be calmed by his best friend’s encouraging words. Despite being portrayed as a largely unintelligent character, it is mentioned in “The Bully” that he went to community college. He also seems to have short-term bursts of “knowledge”; he can sometimes show that he does have a brain. In the episode “Patrick SmartPants”, he refers to Spongebob and Sandy as “Robert” and “Sandra”. His first appearance was in “Help Wanted”. He is a very childish person shown of his drooling,his laziness and imaturity.
Squidward Q. Tentacles (Rodger Bumpass) is an octopus cyanea with a large nose; he is SpongeBob and Patrick’s ill-tempered, grouchy next-door neighbor with a snobby attitude. He plays the clarinet and loves to paint self-portraits in different artistic styles, which he hangs up around the walls of his house shaped like an Easter Island head-sculpture. He abhors SpongeBob and Patrick and would rather be a musician and painter instead of a cashier at the Krusty Krab, which is his current occupation. In the episode Squidville it is shown there are other “Squids” in his species who live in Easter Island heads,are very cranky and play clarinets.
Garold “Gary” Wilson Snail Jr. (Tom Kenny) is SpongeBob’s pet sea snail. Within the series, snails are analogous to cats, so Gary almost always vocalizes like a feline. Despite this, other characters can understand and communicate with him. Depicted as a level-headed character, Gary sometimes serves as a voice of reason for SpongeBob, and solves problems that his owner cannot. He is sometimes nicknamed “Gare-Bear” by SpongeBob, and it is revealed in “A Pal for Gary” that his full first name is Garold.
Sheldon J. Plankton (Doug Lawrence) is the owner of Chum Bucket, the rival restaurant to the Krusty Krab, and archenemy to Mr. Krabs. He constantly tries to steal the Krabby Patty Secret Formula, but is always unsuccessful (The one time he was successful was in The Spongebob Squarepants Movie). He wishes to rule the world. He has a computer wife, who is actually a W.I.F.E. (Wired Integrated Female Electroencephalograph). He is considered the main antagonist of the series.
Sandy Cheeks (Carolyn Lawrence) is a female squirrel from Texas. She has a number of athletic interests, such as “sand-boarding” and karate, and is a rodeo champion. She is also a scientist, explorer and inventor. Being from the surface, she lives in a tree which is inside a glass dome so she can breathe, and also wears a space-suit and helmet to travel outside of her tree-dome. Whenever any aquatic creatures enter her air-filled dome, they must wear helmets filled with water so that they can breathe.
Captain Eugene H. “Armor Abs” Krabs (Clancy Brown) is a red crab who owns and operates the Krusty Krab restaurant where Spongebob works. He is self-content and intelligent. He is obsessed with Money. He has a grandfather named Redbeard and lives in an anchor with his daughter Pearl, who is a whale. The Krusty Krab was originally a retirement home called “The Rusty Krab” which he bought after returning from fighting in the war; when it went bankrupt, he turned it into a restaurant and renamed it “The Krusty Krab”. In some episodes, it is shown that he and Mrs. Puff have a mutual crush on each other. It is revealed in the episode “Sleepy Time” that he was born November 30, 1942. He started the Krusty Krab in 1980. He takes pride in money and his invention the Krabby Patty.
Recurring characters

Mrs. Puff (Mary Jo Catlett) – A Feroxodon with blonde hair, who is the owner and teacher of a boating school (analogous to driving school, as the “boats” are underwater equivalents to cars). She dreads instructing SpongeBob due to his inability to drive without crashing. In the episode “Krusty Love”, it is revealed that her husband is deceased. Also shown in the episode “Krusty Love”, Mrs. Puff once dated Mr. Krabs. It is revealed in the episode “No Free Rides” that Mrs. Puff is not her real name. In the episode “Demolition Doofus”, it is revealed that Mrs. Puff is allergic to flowers.
Pearl Krabs (Lori Alan) is Mr. Krabs’ 16-year-old (as of the episode “Whale of a Birthday”) sperm whale daughter. The series has yet to explain their disparity in species, although in the book SpongeBob’s Trivia Book, Mr. Krabs explains that Pearl takes after her mother, meaning her mother was apparently also a whale. Pearl is frequently embarrassed by her father’s cheap attitude, and often forces him to try and change his habits.
Karen (Jill Talley) is Plankton’s nagging computer “WIFE” (as in an acronym for “Wired Integrated Female Electroencephalograph”). She apparently has a mind of her own, to the point of making fun of Plankton. Karen usually helps Plankton in his schemes to steal the Krabby Patty secret formula although on occasions Plankton rejects her ideas and then takes them as if they were his own. It is revealed in The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie that she never agreed to marry Plankton. Karen also made a cameo in an episode of The Fairly OddParents called “Love Triangle”. She is the monitor at the hospital after Poof catches a disease.
Mermaid Man (Old: Ernest Borgnine (1999-2012) and Joe Whyte (2012-present), Young: Adam West) and Barnacle Boy (Old: Tim Conway, Young: Burt Ward) are two elderly and partially senile superheroes who live in a retirement home, whom SpongeBob and Patrick watch on television. Mermaid Man is the older of the two and is the leader, while Barnacle Boy is his sidekick. Mermaid Man might be a reference to Poseidon, having what looks like Poseidon’s trident. It is most likely that they are parodies of Aquaman and Aqualad, although the fact that their young versions are voiced by Adam West and Burt Ward, as well as the iconic use of onomatopoeic words, hints that they parody Batman and Robin. Mermaid Man is known for completely forgetting things, yelling “EVILLLLL!” whenever he hears the word, and Barnacle Boy seems to be the smarter of the two. It is implied in an episode that they are brothers. The male counterpart to a mermaid is a merman; Borgnine was briefly married to Ethel Merman. It was revealed in the episode entitled “Mermaidman Begins” of the 8th season, that Mermaid Man’s name was Ernie. It is unknown if it is just his nickname or his real first name. Also in this episode says that Barnacle Boy’s real name is Tim. But another episode said his real name was Kyle. Borgnine and Conway had previously appeared together on the 1960s TV series McHale’s Navy. Borgnine died on July 8, 2012 and it is unknown if Mermaid Man will be killed off or be replaced by a different voice actor. Since late 2012, Mermaid Man has been voiced by Joe Whyte, who voiced Mr. Krabs in some video games.
Larry the Lobster (Mr. Lawrence) is a lobster lifeguard of the Goo Lagoon. Larry is a bodybuilder and workout fanatic. He was considered a lifeguard on “SpongeGuard on Duty”, but in other episodes, he is not and simply just hangs out at the beach. Despite his large and muscular physique, he is sometimes shown to be somewhat of a coward. He once overdosed on tanning pills. He also drives an SUV in one episode.
Scooter (Carlos Alazraqui/Clancy Brown) – A parrotfish who enjoys surfing. He allegedly died and became an angel in the second-season episode “Bubble Buddy”, except he also returned in future episodes. Scooter talks like a stereotypical surfer dude, but after Season 3 he had different voices in each episode he appeared in. He is mainly seen at Goo Lagoon.
Nat (Billy West) – A male yellow fish that is a common background character on the show. His last name is revealed in “Missing Identity” and his first name was revealed in “Plankton’s Regular”. He first appeared on the fifth episode of SpongeBob SquarePants, “Ripped Pants”, as a cameo. He appears in many episodes, especially the newer ones. His biggest role is in “Plankton’s Regular”.
The Flying Dutchman (Brian Doyle-Murray) is an irascible pirate ghost named after a ghost ship, The Flying Dutchman. He lives underwater in a giant ship, and collects souls. He has supernatural powers, such was intangibility, levitation, teleportation, energy projection, shapeshifting, interdimensional travel, matter transmutation, and wish granting. He is known for having numerous awards in tying loops but however does not know how to tie shoelaces as revealed in ” Loop De Loop” and hangs a sock on his ghostly tail. It is revealed in “Shanghaied” that he cannot eat without his sock.
The French Narrator (Tom Kenny) speaks at the start of some episodes and during intertitles in American English with a French accent. He is sometimes shown in the series as a scuba diver with a TV camera, though he is normally speaking off-screen. On the November 16, 2004 episode of the NPR program Fresh Air with Terry Gross, Kenny admitted that Jacques Cousteau was the inspiration for the French narrator, as series creator Stephen Hillenburg considered him an idol.
Patchy the Pirate (Tom Kenny) is a live-action character who is a pirate and the president of the SpongeBob fan club. He lives in the city of Encino, California. He is normally present in specials (one-off double length episodes), often in a dual narrative with the animated Spongebob, although sometimes he merely introduces the episode. He made a special guest star appearance on Big Time Rush in the episode “Big Time Beach Party” with Carlos Pena, Jr. and Logan Henderson. Patchy has a next-door neighbor named Mrs. Johnson who offers him cookies and has an electric wheelchair that goes really fast. Patchy works at a fast-food restaurant called The Poop Deck. His boss’ name is Mr. Pirateson.
Potty the Parrot (Stephen Hillenburg and Paul Tibbitt) is Patchy the Pirate’s marionette parrot. He is shown to pull pranks on Patchy and shuns him at almost every episode they appear on. He is the assistant manager at The Poop Deck under Mr. Pirateson, the manager.
Elain (Mr. Lawrence) is a live-action announcer and news anchorfish, resembling a cut-out of a bass fish. Elain appears in numerous episodes, including the beginning intro of the show. His name is revealed to be Elain in “The Great Patty Caper”, though he is known as Johnny in Battle for Bikini Bottom.
Harold SquarePants (Tom Kenny) and Margret Bubblebottom SquarePants (Sirena Irwin) are SpongeBob’s parents, who more resemble sea sponges rather than SpongeBob’s shape as a kitchen sponge. It is implied in the episode “A Squarepants Family Vacation” that Harold is not Spongebob’s real father and could possibly be his stepfather.
Squilliam Fancyson (Dee Bradley Baker) is Squidward Tentacles’s wealthy arch-rival who has been able to succeed in everything Squidward has only dreamed of doing. He and Squidward compete in the series on many occasions and Squidward normally does not win their competition(s), although there are some episodes where Squidward is triumphant. Though sometimes mistaken as a relative of Squidward due to their similarities, they were band classmates in high school and not related.
Mrs. Krabs (Paul Tibbitt/Sirena Irwin) is Eugene’s overbearing mother first appearing in “Sailor Mouth”. Plankton has a small crush on her in “Enemy in Law”. but it is later revealed he is only dating her for the Krabby Patty formula. She is also shown to be quite poor while raising her son through his childhood, as shown the episode “Friend or Foe?”.
Man Ray (John Rhys-Davies & Guy Siner/Bob Joles) and the Dirty Bubble (Charles Nelson Reilly/Tom Kenny) are villains against Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy. Man Ray (not the famous photographer of the same name) has a man’s body with a ray shaped mask and helmet, while the Dirty Bubble is portrayed as a literal giant bubble with a face. Man Ray is based on Black Manta, Aquaman’s archenemy. Charles Nelson Reilly was the primary voice actor for the Dirty Bubble, but Tom Kenny has portrayed the character in one episode after Reilly’s death in 2007.
Perch Perkins (Dee Bradley Baker) is a news reporter. He first appeared in “The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie” as an announcer for the Krusty Krab 2. He appears as a minor character in the series afterwards having his purple color from the movie changed to orange.
Dr. Forrest (Rodger Bumpass) is Bikini Bottom’s doctor, often seen in the hospital. His name is revealed in “Slide Whistle Stooges” and “Shuffleboarding”. He is mostly purple, and has occasional appearances throughout the series, but in the episode “Once Bitten”, there is a similar looking doctor that looks like Dr. Forrest, except he is orange and goes by the name Dr. Gill Gilliam.
Officers Nancy and John (Sirena Irwin & Dee Bradley Baker) – Officer Nancy (a purple female cop fish with blonde hair) and her partner John (an orange fish) are the two most commonly seen cops in Bikini Bottom, most prominently in Season 3. The two officers, especially Officer Nancy, are seen less in recent episodes, but their latest appearance was in “Mr. Krabs Takes a Vacation” where thanks to Mr. Krabs two bank robbers crash through the roof of their police car and land in their backseat without them having to do anything.
Nancy Suzy Fish (Sirena Irwin/Grey DeLisle) is an often seen, but infrequently heard, yellow dress-wearing, white-haired fish. Her name was revealed in “Good Old Whatshisname”.
Old Man Jenkins (Doug Lawrence, Tom Kenny, and Dee Bradley Baker) – An elderly fish who used to live in the Rusty Krab rest home before it became the Krusty Krab restaurant, and currently resides at Shady Shoals Retirement Home along with Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy. His appearance changes in almost every episode he appears. His most memorable appearance is in “The Sponge Who Could Fly” as the antagonist when he becomes Sailor Jenkins and Cannonball Jenkins after giving up farming. He is friends with Mama Krabs as seen in “Sailor Mouth” and his first major appearance, “Friend or Foe?”.
Fred (Doug Lawrence/Jim Cummings), better known as the guy who shouts “MY LEG!”, is a brown fish who was the first of the regular generic character models to appear in the series. He first appears in “Reef Blower” but the famous quote does not come until “Boating School”. Fred is most often seen at the Krusty Krab, such as in “Arrgh!”, when he screams “MY LEG!” after Mr. Krabs throws him out of the Krusty Krab, and in “Jellyfish Hunter”, when he sings about a jelly sandwich he eats. Fred’s name is revealed in “Patty Hype”. One of Fred’s famous lines is “Rev-up those friers, ’cause I am sure hungry for one-” He is then interrupted by Mr. Krabs who says “Can’t you see we’re closed?!” In which Fred responds with the famous “MY LEG” line.
Tom (Dee Bradley Baker) – Tom is a green fish who wears a purple shirt. He is always seen walking around Bikini Bottom. His most memorable appearance is in “Chocolate with Nuts” when he chases SpongeBob and Patrick all over town screaming crazily, “CHOCOLAAAATTTE!”. Finally he catches up with them, but it turns out that he just wanted to buy all of their chocolate. Episodes such as “Pizza Delivery” and “Fools in April” show that he has a habit to obsess over his drinks, often to a violent extent.
Tina Fran is a pretty light red fish who wears a blue dress and skirt. She is one of Pearl Krabs’s friends seen in “Squeaky Boots”. Her name is revealed in “Hall Monitor”, where she attended Mrs. Puff’s Boating School.
Mary (Sirena Irwin) – Mary (or “Lazy Mary” as she’s called by her mother) is an eldery fish who lives in Bikini Bottom with her even more elderly, grumpy mother. She is very annoyed about having to take care of her mother who is very mean to her. Her most memorable appearance was in “Chocolate with Nuts” when Spongebob and Patrick tricked her mom into buying some so she could rub it on her skin and make her “live forever.”
Charlie (Dee Bradley Baker) is a fish often as a background character in the show. His name was revealed in while he was in a TV commercial with Mr. Magic endorsing a product called “Mr. Magic’s Magical Magic Kit”.
Frankie Billy (Kevin Michael Richardson) is a brown fish seen about everywhere in Bikini Bottom. His name was revealed in Professor Squidward when Squidward tells how he likes it putting his name on the board. His latest appearance was in the episode Demolition Doofus when Mrs. Puff was standing right next to him. He talks in many voices. He first appearance was in Life of Crime.
Harold “Bill” Reginald is a blue fish with spiky teeth and a red speedo. His name was revealed in both Have You Seen This Snail? and in the Fiery-Fist o’ Pain when Tina Fran was saying his name. His first appearance was in Ripped Pants.
Minor characters

Painty the Pirate (Patrick Pinney) – A painting of a pirate head that sings the SpongeBob SquarePants theme. Painty also makes minor appearances in several episodes. He has had an appearance in almost all of the episodes.
Bubble Bass (Dee Bradley Baker) – An obese Bass who is SpongeBob’s rival since he is picky about food. He made his first appearance in “Pickles,” and also appears in “F.U.N.” when SpongeBob and Plankton are at the movie theatre. He
made a third appearance in “Plankton’s Good Eye” where he is saved from his burning house by Plankton.
Bubble Buddy (Brad Abrell) – A bubble friend that SpongeBob makes himself after Patrick, Sandy and Squidward were too busy to play with him. He causes a lot of trouble in Bikini Bottom such as fussing over his order at the Krusty Krab, paying Mr. Krabs with bubble money and hogging the porta potty at Goo Lagoon. He leaves Bikini Bottom at the end of the episode but returns when he wants SpongeBob to babysit his son, Shiny who causes even more trouble than his father.
Stanley S. SquarePants (Christopher Guest) – SpongeBob’s cousin who has a similar appearance to SpongeBob, but is much taller. SpongeBob and Stanley try to help each other whenever possible. Stanley is accident-prone and causes destruction wherever he goes. When Eugene discovered his inabilities he sent him over to the Chum Bucket where he literally blew up the place. He is not seen after the episode.
Flatts (Thomas F. Wilson) – A mean flounder who went to boating school with Patrick and bullies SpongeBob at Mrs. Puff’s boating school in the episode “The Bully,” for whom Poppy (Mary Jo Catlett) appreciates for that decision. He was first seen in “Sandy’s Rocket,” and later “Texas”.
Grandma SquarePants (Marion Ross) and Grandpa SquarePants (Tom Kenny) – SpongeBob’s grandparents. Grandpa SquarePants is mentioned in past tense and Grandma SquarePants lives alone and sometimes treats SpongeBob like he is still a little sponge. Grandma SquarePants made her first appearance in the episode “Grandma’s Kisses”. She did not make her next appearance until the 2007 episode “Blackjack”. She made two more appearances in the episodes “The Abrasive Side” and “Pet Sitter Pat”.
Neptune XIV of the Pacific (Paul Tibbitt/John O’Hurley (series) and Jeffrey Tambor (movie)) – The king of the ocean, King Neptune is a massive magical green merman with red glowing hair, although he looks slightly different from one appearance to another. Neptune also appears as one of the movie’s characters, although with a very different appearance, including a blindingly bald head; in the movie, he is also shown to have a daughter named Mindy. In “SpongeBob and the Clash of Triton”, it is shown that he has a son named Triton and is married to Queen Amphitrite. His name is also used frequently as a substitute for “God” in colloquial phrases (e.g. “Sweet mother of Neptune!” and “What in Neptune’s name is that?”).
Jack Kahuna Laguna (JKL) (Johnny Depp) – A surfer who prefers to be called JKL, and helps SpongeBob, Patrick and Squidward get home by teaching them how to surf. He only appears in the special episode “SpongeBob vs. The Big One”. His initials are most likely a parody of Matthew McConaughey’s mantra of “Just Keep Livin’” from his role in Dazed and Confused.
Jim the Former Frycook (Patton Oswalt) – A rich fry cook who formerly worked at the Krusty Krab and later quit because Eugene did not give him a raise in his pay. He now works at the finest restaurants of Bikini Bottom and visits the Krusty Krab sometimes. He is much wealthier than Mr. Krabs. He appears in “The Original Fry Cook”.
Lord Royal Highness (David Bowie) – The king of the lost city Atlantis. L.R.H seems to have somewhat of an extraterrestrial appearance. He only appeared in the special SpongeBob’s Atlantis SquarePantis.
Lord Poltergeist (Chris Elliot) – A pirate ghost who is the former first mate of the Flying Dutchman. He took the Dutchman’s treasure while going for a pizza and never returned. He now haunts a boat house in Bikini Bottom with 3 of his own mates. In “Ghoul Fools” the Dutchman returned to take back his stolen treasure and punish Poltergeist and his crew with eternal torment.
Janet (Clea Lewis) and Marty (Thomas F. Wilson) – Patrick mistakes them for his parents. They appear in the episode “I’m With Stupid”.
Kelpy G (Rodger Bumpass) – Squidward’s favorite smooth jazz clarinet player. He first appears in “The Thing” and makes another appearance in “Smoothe Jazz at Bikini Bottom” when SpongeBob and Squidward sneak backstage at one of his concerts. SpongeBob ends up playing ukelele with Kelpy on stage after he was so impressed with SpongeBob’s talent. The character is a cephalopod version of saxophonist Kenny G.
Nicolas Withers (Alton Brown) – The host of the House Fancy television show, in which Squidward and his rival Squilliam were competing against each other over whose house was better.
Triton (Sebastian Bach) – King Neptune and Queen Amphitrite’s son. He is also the brother of Mindy even though Mindy was not shown in the episode “Clash of Triton”. Triton was always fascinated by the “mortal” world. When King Neptune destroyed Triton’s cure for all “mortal” diseases, Triton confronts King Neptune, forcing King Neptune to lock him away in a cell that shrinks 7% of the way. Triton’s first appearance was on the episode “Clash of Triton”.
Mindy (Scarlett Johansson) – King Neptune’s and Queen Amphitrite’s daughter (who has so far only appeared in The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie) who tends to be sweeter and kinder than her dad, and helped SpongeBob and Patrick with their journey in the movie. Unlike her father King Neptune, brother Triton and mother Queen Amphitrite, Mindy has never been seen using magical powers. Patrick seems to have a crush on Mindy, often calling her pretty and hot. Interestingly, she does not appear alongside her family in “Clash of Triton”. This absence is unexplained.
Queen Amphitrite (Victoria Beckham) – The wife of King Neptune, and the mother of Triton and Mindy. She tends to be very caring of her husband, even though it is not proven she shows a minor dislike for Mr. Krabs, after he called her a prankster on the phone pretending to be Amphitrite.
Blackjack SquarePants (John DiMaggio) – SpongeBob’s older and meaner cousin who used to bully SpongeBob as a child in the episode “Blackjack”. He was arrested for littering and then released. SpongeBob had thought Blackjack would be a huge brutish sponge who was planning to murder his parents, and set out to find them by visiting members of his family. When SpongeBob had reunited with Blackjack, it is shown that he had apparently not grown since he and SpongeBob last saw each other (when SpongeBob was a toddler), making him about as tall as SpongeBob’s foot.
Dennis (Alec Baldwin (Mercenary) and unknown (SpongeBob’s classmate)) – an assassin hired by Plankton to kill SpongeBob and Patrick, and revealed in “The Sponge who Could Fly”, Spongebob’s old elementary school classmate.
Main cast

Tom Kenny as SpongeBob SquarePants, Gary the Snail
Bill Fagerbakke as Patrick Star
Clancy Brown as Mr. Krabs
Carolyn Lawrence as Sandy Cheeks
Rodger Bumpass as Squidward Tentacles
Mr. Lawrence as Plankton
Recurring cast

Mary Jo Catlett as Mrs. Puff
Lori Alan as Pearl
Jill Talley as Karen and various characters
Dee Bradley Baker as Squilliam Fancyson III, Perch Perkins, various characters
Tom Kenny as Patchy the Pirate, French Narrator, Harold SquarePants, various characters
Mr. Lawrence as Larry the Lobster, Johnny-Elaine and various characters
Bill Fagerbakke as the Mayor of Bikini Bottom and various characters
Rodger Bumpass as Dr. Gill Gilliam and various characters
Sirena Irwin as Bubblebottom-SquarePants, Mrs. Betsy Krabs (2005–present) and various characters
Stephen Hillenburg – Potty the Parrot (2000–2004)
Paul Tibbitt as Potty the Parrot (2005–present) and Mrs. Betsy Krabs (2001–2002)
Ernest Borgnine as Mermaid Man (1999–2012)
Tim Conway as Barnacle Boy
Marion Ross as Grandma SquarePants
Brian Doyle-Murray as The Flying Dutchman
John Rhys-Davies as Man Ray (2001–2002)
Bob Joles as Man Ray (2005–present)
Charles Nelson Reilly as Dirty Bubble (2000–2007)
Tom Kenny as Dirty Bubble (2010–present)
John O’Hurley as King Neptune
Mark Fite as various characters
Thomas F. Wilson as various characters
Carlos Alazraqui as various characters

Including the pilot, there are 334 total individual SpongeBob SquarePants episodes that have aired. There are still some episodes that have been announced but have still not yet aired. Season 9 has been announced and will have 26 new episodes bringing the number of episodes up to 204 making SpongeBob as the first Nicktoon to have 200 or more episodes. Season 9 started on July 21, 2012 and will air episodes 179–204. So far, SpongeBob SquarePants is in its ninth season.

Season Episodes/(segments) Season premiere Season finale DVD releases
Region 1 Region 2 Region 4
1 20 / (41) May 1, 1999 April 8, 2000 October 28, 2003 November 7, 2005 November 30, 2006
2 20 / (39) October 26, 2000 July 26, 2003 October 19, 2004 October 23, 2006 November 30, 2006
3 20 / (37) October 5, 2001 October 11, 2004 September 27, 2005 December 3, 2007 November 8, 2007
4 20 / (38) May 6, 2005 July 24, 2007 September 12, 2006 November 3, 2008 November 7, 2008
January 9, 2007
5 20 / (41) February 19, 2007 July 19, 2009 September 4, 2007 November 16, 2009 December 2, 2009
November 18, 2008
6 26 / (47) March 3, 2008 July 5, 2010 December 8, 2009 November 29, 2010 December 2, 2010
December 7, 2010
7 26 / (50) July 19, 2009 June 11, 2011 December 6, 2011 N/A N/A
8 26 / (48) March 26, 2011 TBA N/A N/A N/A
9 26 July 21, 2012 TBA N/A N/A N/A
10 37 TBA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Special episodes

Year Episode
2000 “Christmas Who?”
2002 “Party Pooper Pants”
2003 “The Sponge Who Could Fly”
2004 “Ugh”
2005 “Have You Seen This Snail?”
2006 “Dunces and Dragons”
2007 “Friend or Foe?”
2008 “Pest of the West”
2008 “WhoBob WhatPants?”
2009 “SpongeBob vs. The Big One”
2010 “SpongeBob’s Last Stand”
2010 “The Clash of Triton”
2010 “The Great Patty Caper”
2011 “Frozen Face-Off”
2011 “Ghoul Fools”
2011 “A SquarePants Family Vacation”
2012 “It’s a SpongeBob Christmas!”
TV movies

Year TV Movie
2007 Atlantis SquarePantis
2009 Square Roots: The Story of SpongeBob SquarePants
2009 SpongeBob’s Truth or Square
Theatrical films

Year Movie
2004 The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie
2014 The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie 2


Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.5 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan area is the third largest in the European Union after London, Paris. The city spans a total of 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

The city is located on the Manzanares river in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid (which comprises the city of Madrid, its conurbation and extended suburbs and villages); this community is bordered by the autonomous communities of Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political centre of Spain. The current mayor is Ana Botella from the People’s Party (PP).

Madrid urban agglomeration has the 3rd largest GDP in the European Union and its influences in politics, education, entertainment, environment, media, fashion, science, culture, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world’s major global cities. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre of Southern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula; it hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, Iberia or Repsol. Madrid is the most touristic city of Spain, the fourth-most touristic of the continent, and is the 10th most livable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2010 index. Madrid also ranks among the 12 greenest European cities in 2010. Madrid is currently a Candidate City for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization (WTO), belonging to the United Nations Organization (UN), the SEGIB and the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI). It also hosts major international institutions regulators of Spanish: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu). Madrid organizes fairs as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week.

While Madrid possesses a modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid; the Teatro Real (Royal theatre) with its restored 1850 Opera House; the Buen Retiro Park, founded in 1631; the 19th-century National Library building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain’s historical archives; a large number of National museums, and the Golden Triangle of Art, located along the Paseo del Prado and comprising three art museums: Prado Museum, the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, a museum of modern art, and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, which completes the shortcomings of the other two museums.

In the years the Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become the monument symbol of the city.

The population of Madrid generally increased from when the city became the national capital in the mid-16th century and stabilised at about 3 million from the 1970s.

From around 1970 until the mid 1990s, the city’s population dropped. This phenomenon, which also affected other European cities, was caused in part by the growth of satellite suburbs at the expense of the downtown. Another reason might have been the slowdown in the rate of growth of the European economy.

The demographic boom accelerated in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century due to international immigration, in response to a surge in Spanish economic growth. According to census data, the population of the city grew by 271,856 between 2001 and 2005.

As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the world. About 83.8% of the inhabitants are Spaniards, while people of other origins, including immigrants from Latin America, Europe, Asia, North Africa and West Africa, represented 16.2% of the population in 2007.

The ten largest immigrant groups include: Ecuadorian: 104,184, Romanian: 52,875, Bolivian: 44,044, Colombian: 35,971, Peruvian: 35,083, Chinese: 34,666, Moroccan: 32,498, Dominican: 19,602, Brazilian: 14,583, and Paraguayan: 14,308. There are also important communities of Filipinos, Equatorial Guineans, Bulgarians, Indians, Italians, Argentines, Senegalese and Poles.

Districts that host the largest number of immigrants are Usera (28.37%), Centro (26.87%), Carabanchel (22.72%) and Tetuán (21.54%). Districts that host the smallest number are Fuencarral-El Pardo (9.27%), Retiro (9.64%) and Chamartín (11.74%).

Historically, Madrid’s population was noted to be strictly Catholic, something that has often left an imprint on the identity of the city. However, Madrid has over the years become one of the least religious cities in the Western world, with several studies suggesting that 40% of the Madrid metropolitan area population identified themselves as atheist.

Districts of Madrid

Madrid is administratively divided into 21 districts, which are further subdivided into 128 wards (barrios)

  • Centro: Palacio, Embajadores, Cortes, Justicia, Universidad, Sol.
  • Arganzuela: Imperial, Acacias, La Chopera, Legazpi, Delicias, Palos de Moguer, Atocha.
  • Retiro: Pacífico, Adelfas, Estrella, Ibiza, Jerónimos, Niño Jesús.
  • Salamanca: Recoletos, Goya, Parque de las Avenidas, Fuente del Berro, Guindalera, Lista, Castellana.
  • Chamartín: El Viso, Prosperidad, Ciudad Jardín, Hispanoamérica, Nueva España, Castilla.
  • Tetuán: Bellas Vistas, Cuatro Caminos, Castillejos, Almenara, Valdeacederas, Berruguete.
  • Chamberí: Gaztambide, Arapiles, Trafalgar, Almagro, Vallehermoso, Ríos Rosas.
  • Fuencarral-El Pardo: El Pardo, Fuentelarreina, Peñagrande, Barrio del Pilar, La Paz, Valverde, Mirasierra, El Goloso.
  • Moncloa-Aravaca: Casa de Campo, Argüelles, Ciudad Universitaria, Valdezarza, Valdemarín, El Plantío, Aravaca.
  • Latina: Los Cármenes, Puerta del Ángel, Lucero, Aluche, Las Águilas, Campamento, Cuatro Vientos.
  • Carabanchel: Comillas, Opañel, San Isidro, Vista Alegre, Puerta Bonita, Buenavista, Abrantes.
  • Usera: Orcasitas, Orcasur, San Fermín, Almendrales, Moscardó, Zofío, Pradolongo.
  • Puente de Vallecas: Entrevías, San Diego, Palomeras Bajas, Palomeras Sureste, Portazgo, Numancia.
  • Moratalaz: Pavones, Horcajo, Marroquina, Media Legua, Fontarrón, Vinateros.
  • Ciudad Lineal: Ventas, Pueblo Nuevo, Quintana, La Concepción, San Pascual, San Juan Bautista, Colina, Atalaya, Costillares.
  • Hortaleza: Palomas, Valdefuentes, Canillas, Pinar del Rey, Apóstol Santiago, Piovera.
  • Villaverde: San Andrés, San Cristóbal, Butarque, Los Rosales, Los Ángeles.
  • Villa de Vallecas: Casco Histórico de Vallecas, Santa Eugenia.
  • Vicálvaro: Casco Histórico de Vicálvaro, Ambroz.
  • San Blas: Simancas, Hellín, Amposta, Arcos, Rosas, Rejas, Canillejas, Salvador.
  • Barajas: Alameda de Osuna, Aeropuerto, Casco Histórico de Barajas, Timón, Corralejos.

Madrid metropolitan area

Submetropolitan area
Madrid – Majadahonda 996.1 3,580,828 3,595.0
Móstoles – Alcorcón 315.1 430,349 1,365.6
Fuenlabrada – Leganés – Getafe – Parla – Pinto –Valdemoro 931.7 822,806 883.1
Alcobendas 266.4 205,905 772.9
Arganda del Rey – Rivas-Vaciamadrid 343.6 115,344 335.7
Alcalá de Henares – Torrejón de Ardoz 514.6 360,380 700.3
Colmenar Viejo – Tres Cantos 419.1 104,650 249.7
Collado Villalba 823.1 222,769 270.6
Madrid metropolitan area 4,609.7 5,843,031 1,267.6


Madrid is home to La Liga football club Real Madrid, who play their home games at the Santiago Bernabéu. Their supporters are referred to as Madridistas or Merengues (Merengues). Real Madrid is one of the most prestigious football clubs in the world (FIFA selected Real Madrid the best team of the 20th century), having won a record 9 European Cups. Their hometown rivals, Atlético Madrid, are also well supported in the city. The players (and supporters) are referred to as Colchoneros (The Mattress Makers), in reference to the team’s red and white jersey colours, which were determined by mattress material being the cheapest at the time of the club’s formation. In 1982, Madrid hosted the FIFA World Cup Final. Along with Barcelona, Glasgow and Lisbon, Madrid is one of only four cities in Europe to contain two UEFA 5-star stadia: Real Madrid’s Santiago Bernabéu and Atlético Madrid’s Vicente Calderón both meet the said criteria. Rayo Vallecano and Getafe CF are two further teams from the Madrid area playing currently in La Liga.

Some of Spain’s top footballers are Madrileños (born in Madrid), including Real Madrid former player Emilio Butragueño and co (La Quinta del Buitre, “The Vulture’s Quint”), Premier League’s Pepe Reina, Fernando Torres and Real Madrid veterans Raúl González, Guti Hernandez and Iker Casillas.

Madrid boasts a prominent place in Spanish basketball, with two clubs in the country’s top-level Liga ACB. Real Madrid’s basketball section has won 30 Spanish League championships, 22 Spanish Cup championships, 8 Euroleague Championships, 4 Saporta Cups, 4 Intercontinental Cups and have won 2 Triple Crowns. Madrid’s other professional basketball club is Estudiantes that have won 3 Spanish Cup championships.

Madrid hosts the Mutua Madrileña Madrid Open. The tournament is classified as an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 event on the Association of Tennis Professionals tour, and a Premier Mandatory event on the Women’s Tennis Association tour. Caja Mágica (The Magic Box, and also known as the Manzanares Park Tennis Centre) is a tennis structure located at Manzanares Park, used for the Madrid Masters tournament, Caja Mágica is also home to the Spanish F1 team HRT F1 Team.

The city is also host to the Circuito Permanente Del Jarama, a motorsport race circuit.

Historically, the city serves as the final stage of the Vuelta a España cycling event, in the same way Paris serves as the conclusive stage of the Tour de France.

Skiing is possible in the nearby mountains of the Sierra de Guadarrama, where the ski resorts of Valdesqui and Navacerrada are located.

In the past, Madrid has bid to host the 1972, 2012, and 2016 Summer Olympics, which were awarded to Munich, London, and Rio de Janeiro respectively. In July 2011 Madrid Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardon announced Madrid’s plans to bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics. The city has two major annual road running events – the Madrid Marathon and the San Silvestre Vallecana 10 km (6 mi) run – tens of thousands of runners take part in these races each year. As reported by Olympic news outlet Around the Rings.

Club League Sport Venue Established Capacity
Real Madrid C.F. La Liga Football Santiago Bernabéu 1902 85,454
Atlético Madrid La Liga Football Vicente Calderón 1903 54,851
Rayo Vallecano La Liga Football Estadio de Vallecas 1924 15,500
Real Madrid Castilla Segunda División Football Alfredo di Stéfano 1930 6,000
Real Madrid Baloncesto ACB Basketball Palacio de Deportes de Madrid 1932 16,000
CB Estudiantes ACB Basketball Palacio de Deportes de Madrid 1948 16,000
BM Atlético Madrid ASOBAL Handball Palacio Vistalegre 2011 15,000

How Many Endangered Species Are There

There are about 50,000 species that are on the IUCN Red List. Some of these are the Loggerhead Turtles, Siberian Tiger, Mountain Gorilla and the Blue Whale. 16,306 of them are endangered species threatened with extinction. This is up from 16,118 last year. This includes both endangered animals and endangered plants.

The species endangered include one in four mammals, one in eight birds, one third of all amphibians and 70% of the world’s assessed plants on the 2007 IUCN Red List are in jeopardy of extinction. The total number of extinct species has reached 785 and a further 65 are only found in captivity or in cultivation. In the last 500 years, human activity has forced over 800 species into extinction.

In 2010, a total of 47,978 species were evaluated, so let’s break it down a little further. Most mammal, bird and amphibian species were completely or almost completely evaluated. According to the results, birds are doing the best: only 12 percent of them are vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered. Mammals come in next at 21 percent. Amphibians are struggling the most: 30 percent are in trouble.

How many endangered species are there in the US?

There are about 400 animals in the United States who are listed as endangered, and about 130 that are threatened. Worldwide, there are about 500 animals listed as endangered and 39 listed as threatened.

IUCN Red List refers to a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. The IUCN Red List uses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the IUCN Categories and Criteria, endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered species may also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria

The more general term used by the IUCN for species at risk of extinction is threatened species, which also includes the less-at-risk category of vulnerable species together with endangered and critically endangered.

IUCN categories, and some animals in those categories, include:

Extinct: Examples: Atlas bear, Aurochs, Bali Tiger, Caribbean Monk Seal, Carolina Parakeet, Caspian Tiger, Dinosaurs, Dodo, Dusky Seaside Sparrow, Elephant Bird, Golden Toad, Great Auk, Haast’s Eagle, Japanese Sea Lion, Javan Tiger, Moa, Passenger Pigeon, Pterosaurs, Saber-toothed cat, Short-faced bear, Steller’s Sea Cow, Thylacine, Toolache Wallaby, Western Black Rhinoceros, Woolly Mammoth, Woolly Rhinoceros, Yangtze River Dolphin

Extinct in the wild: captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population. Examples: Barbary Lion (maybe extinct), Catarina Pupfish, Hawaiian Crow, Northern White Rhinoceros, Scimitar Oryx, Socorro Dove, Wyoming Toad

Critically endangered: faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Examples: Addax, African Wild Ass, Alabama Cavefish, Amur Leopard, Arakan Forest Turtle, Asiatic Cheetah, Axolotl, Bactrian Camel, Brazilian Merganser, Brown Spider Monkey, California Condor, Chinese Alligator, Chinese Giant Salamander, Ethiopian Wolf, Gharial, Hawaiian Monk Seal, Iberian Lynx, Island Fox, Javan Rhino, Kakapo, Leatherback Sea Turtle, Mediterranean Monk Seal, Mexican Wolf, Mountain Gorilla, Philippine Eagle, Red Wolf, Saiga, Siamese Crocodile, Spix’s Macaw, Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Takhi, Vaquita

Endangered: faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future. Examples: African Penguin, African Wild Dog, Asian Elephant, Asiatic Lion, Blue Whale, Bonobo, Bornean Orangutan, Chimpanzees, Dhole, Giant Otter, Giant Panda, Goliath Frog, Gorillas, Green Sea Turtle, Grevy’s Zebra, Hyacinth Macaw, Japanese Crane, Lear’s Macaw, Malayan Tapir, Markhor, Persian Leopard, Proboscis Monkey, Pygmy Hippopotamus, Rothschild Giraffe, Snow Leopard, Steller’s Sea Lion, Scopas tang, Tiger, Volcano Rabbit, Wild Water Buffalo

Vulnerable: faces a high risk of extinction in the medium-term. Examples: African Elephant, Clouded Leopard, Cheetah, Dugong, Far Eastern Curlew, Fossa, Galapagos Tortoise, Gaur, Blue-eyed cockatoo, Golden Hamster, Whale Shark, Crowned Crane, Hippopotamus, Humboldt Penguin, Indian Rhinoceros, Komodo Dragon, Lion, Mandrill, Maned Sloth, Mountain Zebra, Polar Bear, Red Panda, Sloth Bear, Takin, Yak

Near threatened: may be considered threatened in the near future. Examples: African Grey Parrot, American Bison, starry blenny, Asian Golden Cat, Blue-billed Duck, Eurasian Curlew, Jaguar, Leopard, Magellanic Penguin, Maned Wolf, Narwhal, Okapi, Solitary Eagle, Southern White Rhinoceros, Striped Hyena, Tiger Shark

Least concern: no immediate threat to the survival of the species. Examples: American Alligator, American Crow, Indian Peafowl, Baboon, Bald Eagle, Brown Bear, Brown Rat, Brown-throated sloth, Cane Toad, Common Wood Pigeon, Cougar, Emperor Penguin, Orca, Giraffe, Grey Wolf, House Mouse, Palm cockatoo, cowfish, Mallard, Meerkat, Mute Swan, Platypus, Red-tailed Hawk, Rock Pigeon, Scarlet Macaw, Southern Elephant Seal Milk shark Red howler monkey

How Many Pokemon Are There

There are 754 Pokemon. There are many more pokemon to come in the future. Because there is the fifth generation of Pokemon (take a look at the black and white pokedox)

Season 1: Indigo League (82 episodes, 1999)
Season 2: The Adventures in the Orange Islands (36 episodes, 2000)
Season 3: The Johto Journeys (41 episodes, 2001)
Season 4: Johto League Champions (52 episodes, 2002)
Season 5: Master Quest (65 episodes, 2003)
Season 6: Advanced (40 episodes, 2004)
Season 7: Advanced Challenge (51 episodes, 2005)
Season 8: Advanced Battle (53 episodes, 2006)
Season 9: Battle Frontier (55 episodes, 2007)
Season 10: Diamond and Pearl (51 episodes, 2008)
Season 11: Diamond and Pearl: Battle Dimension (51 episodes, 2009)
Season 12: Diamond and Pearl: Galactic Battles (52 episodes, 2010)
Season 13: Diamond and Pearl: Sinnoh League Victors (33 episodes, 2011)
Season 14: Black & White (47 episodes, 2011)
Season 15: Black & White: Rival Destinies (35 episodes, 2012)
Season 16: Best Wishes! (10 episodes, Japan: June 21, 2012)
Total: 754 Pokemon.

How many types of Pokemon are there?

There are 18 different types of Pokémon. In Kanto, there were only 16, but the Johto region Pokémon saw an introduction of two new types. These are now commonly seen in Pokémon nowadays. Many Pokémon also have dual types (having more than one), but they still take them from the 18 types listed above and make no new types.

Hairstyles 2012

2012 year the most popular hair styles, braided hairstyles, curly hairstyles and voluminous hairstyles.

Hairstyle process

Hair dressing may include cuts, weaves, coloring, extensions, perms, permanent relaxers, curling, and any other form of styling or texturing.

Length and trimming

Hair cutting or hair trimming is intended to create or maintain a specific shape and form. Its extent may range from merely trimming the uneven ends of the hair to a uniform length to completely shaving the head.

The overall shape of the hairstyle is usually maintained by trimming it at regular intervals. There are ways to trim one’s own hair but usually another person is enlisted to perform the process, as it is difficult to maintain symmetry while cutting hair at the back of one’s head. Although trimming enhances the hair’s appearance by removing damaged or split ends, it does not promote faster growth or remove all damage along the length of the hair.

Stylists often wash a subject’s hair first, so that the hair is cut while still slightly damp. Compared to dry hair, wet hair can be easier to manage in a cut/style situation because the added weight and surface tension of the water cause the strands to stretch downward and cling together along the hair’s length, holding a line and making it easier for the stylist to create a form.

Brushing and combing

Brushes and combs are used to organize and untangle the hair, encouraging all of the strands to lie in the same direction and removing debris such as lint, dandruff, or hairs that have already shed from their follicles but continue to cling to the other hairs.

There are all manner of detangling tools available in a wide variety of price ranges. Combs come in all shapes and sizes and all manner of materials including plastics, wood, and horn. Similarly, brushes also come in all sizes and shapes, including various paddle shapes. Most benefit from using some form of a wide tooth comb for detangling. Most physicians advise against sharing hair care instruments like combs and clips, to prevent spreading hair conditions like dandruff and head lice.

The historical dictum to brush hair with one hundred strokes every day is somewhat archaic, dating from a time when hair was washed less frequently; the brushstrokes would spread the scalp’s natural oils down through the hair, creating a protective effect. Now, however, this does not apply when the natural oils have been washed off by frequent shampoos. Also, hairbrushes are now usually made with rigid plastic bristles instead of the natural boar’s bristles that were once standard; the plastic bristles increase the likelihood of actually injuring the scalp and hair with excessively vigorous brushing.


Hair dryers speed the drying process of hair by blowing air, which is usually heated, over the wet hair shaft to accelerate the rate of water evaporation.

Excessive heat may increase the rate of shaft-splitting or other damage to the hair. Hair dryer diffusers can be used to widen the stream of air flow so it is weaker but covers a larger area of the hair.

Hair dryers can also be used as a tool to sculpt the hair to a very slight degree. Proper technique involves aiming the dryer such that the air does not blow onto the face or scalp, which can cause burns.

Braiding and updos

Tight or frequent braiding may pull at the hair roots and cause traction alopecia. Rubber bands with metal clasps or tight clips, which bend the hair shaft at extreme angles, can have the same effect.

If hair is pinned too tightly, or the whole updo slips causing pulling on the hair in the follicle at the hair root are other scenarios that can cause aggravation to the hair follicle and result in headaches. Although many African- Americans use braiding extensions as a form of convenience, it is important not to keep the braids up longer than needed to avoid hair breakage or hair loss.

Twitter Backgrounds

How to change twitter background?

Twitter allows you to upload custom background. Its a nice way to use your brand logo and description as your Twitter Background. Follow the following steps to upload your customized twitter background. (While this is a simple tip, many people miss it and continue to use the default Twitter Backgrounds)

  • Click on the image to get the full-sized version
  • Right-click on the image
  • Click on Save Picture As
  • Save picture to your hard drive

Step 1: In your Twitter Profile. “Edit your profile”

Step 2: Click on “Design”

Step 3: Either Select a existing Theme or Click “Change Background Image”, Browse your Image and Upload it. You can also Tile the Image if you want. Hit the Browse button to find the image on your computer. Hit Save Changes.

Images can be either JPEG, GIF or PNG files. The size should be less than 800kb. Also Twitter stores your previous Background Images along with your profile, so you can revisit it later.

Twitter Backgrounds


How Many Calories in a Cup of Black Coffee

One cup of regular black coffee brewed from ground beans holds only 2 calories, and 1 fluid ounce of rich black espresso contains only 1 calorie. Also A 1 mug/270 ml of black coffee contains about 5.4 calorie. One teaspoon of regular instant coffee powder also carries just 2 calories. Brewing coffee from decaffeinated beans reduces the calorie count to zero, but decaffeinated coffee powder doubles the calories found in 1 teaspoon to 4. Sweeteners, flavorings and cream or milk deliver the calories in rich modern coffee drinks, some of which may yield 700 calories per serving.

How Many Calories in a Cup of Black Coffee?
1 cup 2 calories
2 cups 4 calories
4 cups 8 calories
8 cups 16 calories

Type Hot or cold (usually hot)
Country of origin Ethiopia
Introduced Approx. 15th century (beverage)
Colour Dark brown, beige, black, light brown